JERUSALEM While nowhere near coexistence, Israel and Hamas are trying out an accommodation of sorts with an Egyptian-brokered truce in the Gaza Strip.
The deal came into effect at dawn on June 19 and seemed to be holding until late Monday night, June 23, when a Palestinian mortar shell was fired into Israel.
On Tuesday, several Kassam rockets landed in southern Israel, slightly injuring two people. Islamic Jihad claimed responsibility for the attack.
Despite the apparent violations, Hamas said it was committed to the ceasefire, and the rocket salvo elicited no immediate response from Israel.
For Hamas, the ceasefire is expected to bring a letup in Israeli attacks and an easing of the Israeli blockade of Gaza, which was designed to weaken support for Hamas among the strips 1.5 million, mostly aid-dependent Palestinians.
For Israel, the ceasefire is expected to bring a reprieve from Palestinian shelling and rocket attacks, though Tuesdays rocket attack fueled speculation that the quiet would not hold.
Palestinian rocket attacks have killed 16 people since 2004, including three in recent weeks, and raised the pressure on Prime Minister Ehud Olmert to order an invasion of Gaza.
The Gaza problem has presented the scandal-plagued prime minister with a thorny dilemma.
If Olmert were to order a major invasion, left-wingers would go after him, and the Israel Defense Forces could end up in the same insoluble quagmire it encountered in Lebanon in 2006 with Hezbollah.
But by agreeing to a truce, the right-wing opposition has slammed Olmert for dealing, albeit indirectly, with Hamas, saying it will give Hamas time to rearm and enable the terrorist group to gain legitimacy abroad.
Some Israeli strategists suggest that the Olmert government may have to do both: Try out a truce, then invade Gaza if it fails.
My feeling is that ultimately we are destined for violent confrontation with Hamas, Deputy Defense Minister Matan Vilnai said last week during a visit to the Gaza-Israel border. But before we send our boys to the battlefield, we have to know that we exhausted other options first.
Israeli Defense Minister Ehud Barak told Frances Le Monde newspaper, Historically, we are on a collision course with Hamas. But it still makes sense to grasp this opportunity.
Olmert was unapologetic last week about his agreeing to a ceasefire a decision that was backed by his security Cabinet and said Israel would resort to force if the ceasefire fails.
The terrorist organizations that control the Gaza Strip have been under continuous military and economic pressure in recent months as a result of the governments policies. It was they who sought the calm, Olmert said in a speech on June 18, using Israels more amorphous term for the truce.
I would like to emphasize and make it clear that we did not hold and I will not hold negotiations with any terrorist organization. We have no illusions.
Hamas, which found itself cut off in Gaza after seizing control of the territory from the Fatah faction of PA President Mahmoud Abbas last June, has demanded an end to Gazas siege.
Hamas armed wing, which lost a gunman to an Israeli airstrike just hours before the truce began, also has said it is ready to resume attacks. The terrorist group has made no secret of its plan to use the quiet of the ceasefire to stockpile weapons and train fighters.
It seems that the people who turned a blind eye to the rocket fire on Sderot and continued to turn a blind eye to the rocket fire on Ashkelon will continue to turn a blind eye now if Hamas begins to fire rockets at Ashdod and Kiryat Gat and, who knows, maybe even further north than that, said Eyal Zisser, an expert at the Moshe Dayan Center for Middle East and African Studies at Tel Aviv University.
Israel, therefore, is waking up to a reality in which a hostile entity that is not interested in a peace process and historic reconciliation with it has been formed on its southern border, he said.
This entity is prepared to have a truce with Israel, but similar to the quiet or, should we say, truce that exists on Israels northern border with Hamas twin sister, Hezbollah. It seems that in this case we are talking about a temporary state of calm that is not going to lead Israel and the entire region in a positive direction.
Hamas refuses to renounce its mission to overthrow the Jewish state, but its leader in Gaza, Ismail Haniyeh, the deposed PA prime minister, struck an unusually conciliatory note last week.
Should Israel honor the calm, it will also provide some relief to the Israelis, Haniyeh told reporters.
Olmert flew to the Egyptian resort of Sharm el-Sheik this week for talks with Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak about staunching arms smuggling from the Egyptian Sinai to Gaza and stepping up efforts to secure a prisoner swap involving Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit.
Shalit, who was taken captive two years ago, would be swapped for Palestinian terrorists jailed in Israel.
Shalits father, Noam, told Israeli media he felt cheated by the governments willingness to enter a Gaza truce without a guarantee that his son would be returned.
But Israeli officials said Egypt has agreed to hold off on opening its border with Gaza a key Hamas demand until there is progress in talks on Shalits return.
In any case, the IDF is expected to be ready for a last-resort invasion of Gaza, if the ceasefire fails.