JERUSALEM — What kind of beer did Pharaoh drink? In ancient times, beer was an important ingredient in people’s daily diet. Great powers were attributed to beer in the ancient world, particularly for religious worship and healing properties. The pottery used to produce beer in antiquity serves as the basis for new research.
The research was led by Dr. Ronen Hazan and Dr. Michael Klutstein, microbiologists from the School of Dental Medicine at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
They examined the colonies of yeast that formed and settled in the pottery’s nano-pores.
Ultimately, they were able to use resurrect this yeast to create a high-quality beer . . . that’s approximately 5,000 years old!
Many cooks were invited into this beer kitchen to isolate the yeast specimens from the ancient debris and to create a beer with it.
First, the scientists reached out to vintners at Kadma Winery. This winery still produces wine in clay vessels, proving that yeast may be safely removed from pottery, even if it had lain dormant in the sun for years.
The yeast was then photographed by Dr. Tziona Ben-Gedalya at the Eastern R&D Center of Ariel University. Following her initial examination, the team reached out to archaeologists Dr. Yitzhak Paz from the Israel Antiquities Authority, Prof. Aren Maeir at Bar Ilan University and Profs. Yuval Gadot and Oded Lipschits from Tel Aviv University.
These archaeologists gave them shards of pottery that had been used as beer and mead (honey wine) jugs back in ancient times — and, miraculously, still had yeast specimens stuck inside. These jars date back to the reign of Egyptian Pharaoh Narmer (roughly 3000 BCE), to Aramean King Hazael (800 BCE) and to Prophet Nehemiah (400 BCE) who, according to the Bible, governed Judea under Persian rule.
The researchers cleaned and sequenced the full genome of each yeast specimen and turned them over to Dr. Amir Szitenberg at the Dead Sea-Arava Science Center for analysis.
Szitenberg found that these 5,000-year yeast cultures are similar to those used in traditional African brews, such as the Ethiopian honey wine tej, and to modern beer yeast.
Now it was time to recreate the ancient brew. Local Israeli beer expert Itai Gutman helped the scientists make the beer and the brew was sampled by Ariel University’s Dr. Elyashiv Drori, as well as by certified tasters from the International Beer Judge Certification Program, under the direction of brewer and Biratenu owner Shmuel Nakai.
The testers gave the beer a thumbs up, deeming it high-quality and safe for consumption.
Hazan said, “The greatest wonder here is that the yeast colonies survived within the vessel for thousands of years—just waiting to be excavated and grown. This ancient yeast allowed us to create beer that lets us know what ancient Philistine and Egyptian beer tasted like. By the way, the beer isn’t bad.
“Aside from the gimmick of drinking beer from the time of King Pharaoh, this research is extremely important to the field of experimental archaeology — a field that seeks to reconstruct the past. Our research offers new tools to examine ancient methods, and enables us to taste the flavors of the past.”
Maeir added, “These findings paint a portrait that supports the biblical image of drunken Philistines.”