via My Jewish Learning
The pomegranate has become synonymous with Rosh Hashanah. Images of the fruit are mainstays of Rosh Hashanah cards, Jewish jewelry and a range of Jewish ritual objects, and the fruit itself makes frequent appearances in Jewish cuisine.
But what’s so Jewish about this ancient treat? Quite a lot! And now that we’re in the month of Elul, it’s time to find out what.
1. The pomegranate is one of Israel’s “seven species.”
The pomegranate is one of the seven species of Israel (along with wheat, barley, grapes, figs, olives, and dates) listed in the Torah in Deuteronomy 7:12-11:25.
2. Pomegranates traditionally symbolize fertility and love.
In Jewish tradition, pomegranates are a symbol of fertility, winning them frequent mention in, among other biblical texts, the Song of Songs. For example (Song of Songs 4:3): “Your lips are like a crimson thread; your mouth is lovely. Your brow behind your veil [gleams] like a pomegranate split open.”
3. Pomegranates decorate many Torah scrolls.
The decorative ornaments at the top of many Ashkenazi Torah scroll covers are often shaped like pomegranates and are called rimonim, the Hebrew word for pomegranate.
4. Pomegranates are part of the Rosh Hashanah “seder.”
The pomegranate is one of several symbolic foods incorporated into the Rosh Hashanah “seder.” Before eating the pomegranate seeds, Jews recite, “May we be as full of mitzvot (good deeds) as the pomegranate is full of seeds.”
5. A pomegranate is often the “new fruit” on the second night of Rosh Hashanah.
Many Jews use pomegranates on the second night of Rosh Hashanah, for the custom of saying a blessing over a “new fruit,” one that people have not eaten in a long time.
6. Pomegranate seeds are associated with the 613 mitzvot (commandments).
The pomegranate is often said to have 613 seeds, corresponding to the 613 commandments in the Torah.
While this is not actually true (the number of seeds in each pomegranate varies widely), some have theorized that this belief stems from a Talmudic passage in Berachot, which concludes that even “the empty ones among the Jews are full of mitzvot like a pomegranate is [full of seeds.]”
7. Pomegranates continue to grow in Israel.
Pomegranates have been cultivated in Israel and throughout the Middle East for thousands of years, and they continue to grow there in abundance. When pomegranates are in season, fresh-squeezed pomegranate juice is sold in kiosks throughout the country. According to the Israeli Agriculture International Portal, Israel harvests approximately 60,000 tons of the fruit annually. About half are earmarked for export.
8. Pomegranates are frequently mentioned in Jewish texts.
Pomegranates make frequent appearances in the Bible and Talmud, including:
• In Numbers 13:1-15:41, a pomegranate is one of the items brought back by the 12 spies when they return from scouting out the Land of Canaan.
• Images of pomegranates adorn the robes of the high priest, as described in Exodus 27:20-30:10.
9. Pomegranates are found on ancient Judean coins.
An image of a pomegranate decorated some ancient Jewish coins, including a recently discovered one from the era of the Bar Kochba revolt (second century CE).